Waste treatment technologies are a set of concepts, methods and approaches to the handling of production and consumption wastes, the purpose of which is to reduce the volume of waste and increase the efficiency of their reuse or recycling.

The proposed modern technologies allow us to simultaneously solve the problem of waste disposal and create local energy sources. Thus, the garbage will not come back to us in the form of expanding landfills and polluted water, but in the form of electricity through wires, heat in the heating batteries or vegetables and fruits grown in greenhouses.

Modern air pollution control systems such as flue gas desulphurisation, selective catalytic reduction units, ash removal systems, electrostatic and carbon filters help protect the environment from adverse production factors.

Incinerator as an energy source

High temperature pyrolysis. This method of disposal of MSW is essentially nothing but gasification of garbage. Technological scheme of this method involves obtaining from the biological component (biomass) waste secondary synthesis gas to use it to produce steam, hot water, electricity. Part of the process of high-temperature pyrolysis are solid products in the form of slag.

At a specialized plant, waste can accumulate up to two weeks, and then enter the boiler, which is designed for 7 thousand tons of waste, in each of them – two zones .

In the first – the waste is thermally treated at a temperature of 1260 ° C. Such critical temperatures burn absolutely everything, even poisonous dioxins. In this zone of extreme high-temperature combustion, all harmful elements disappear.

The second zone is a gas afterburner. Here comes the flue gases generated in the combustion process. Even if we assume that some harmful substances have passed through the first zone, they will definitely be destroyed during the secondary afterburning, where the temperature exceeds 850 ° C. In addition, a special urea solution is injected into the afterburner chamber in order to completely remove organic compounds and neutralize flue gases.

Инфографика: Проект «Энергия из отходов»

Flue gases and slag enter the reactor where treatment with activated carbon and ammonia takes place, chemical elements are added for additional neutralization.

Already cleaned flue gases come out of the reactor and enter the bag filters, where very thin tubes take any fraction to microparticles that hover in the air. If you take measurements of the air in the city and the air after the bag filter, it is much cleaner at the factory.

A ton of garbage in 15 minutes after entering the boiler turns into steam. The steam entering energy production and the flue gases circulate in different circuits and never mix in the process. It is sent to the turbogenerator for the production of electricity. At the same time, only 5-10% of the energy produced is consumed for the plant’s own needs, the rest goes to the network.

The project “Energy from waste”

When burning waste, slag is formed, which is sent to road construction.

Fly ash makes up about 3-5% of recyclable waste and is classified as hazard class 3. Ashes can also be processed into building materials according to the British technology Carbon8. This technology has been recognized by the UN and has been awarded for its contribution to the cyclical economy of the European Union.

Carbon8 is the chemical disposal of ash by accelerated carbonization. From the third class of danger, ash is neutralized to raw materials for the production of building materials.

Accelerated Carbonation Technology (Accelerated Carbonation Technology) is a controlled, accelerated version of the natural carbonation process — carbonation, which improves the chemical and physical properties of the treated materials.

Under certain conditions, this natural reaction can be accelerated and proceeds within a few minutes, rather than months or years, like previous methods of processing ash.

Ash successfully turns into various blocks, borders, tiles and can replace cement. Thus, new technologies provide a unique opportunity – not to bury a single kilogram of garbage underground.